||The Allahabad Pillar inscription is the most authentic record about the reign of a famous Emperor. Identify that Emperor.
||The Hindu kingdom of Champa flourished outside the present boundaries of India. Where would the kingdom be located in today's context?
||Vietnam. During this period, the country was considered a great centre of Vedic education.
||What is Theravada in the context of Buddhism?
||It is a major form of Buddhism prevalent in Sri Lanka, Burma, Cambodia, Laos and Thailand.
||Where is Angkor Vat located?
||It is located in the ancient kingdom of Kambuja (modem Cambodia). It means Temple (Vat) of the city (Angkor).
||Who constructed Angkor Vat?
||To whom is Angkor Vat dedicated?
||Who wrote Uttara-Rama-Charitam?
||What is the Gandhara art also known as?
||Indo-Greek. The Gandhara sculptures drew their inspiration from the Hellenic (Greek) art of Asia Minor.
||After whom have the rock-cut temples at Mahabalipuram in Tamil Nadu been named?
||The five Pandavas and Draupadi.
||To which dynasty did Gautamiputra Shatakarni belong?
||Who founded the Shatavahana dynasty?
||The founder of the family was Simuka but it was Shatakarni I who raised it to eminence.
||Who wrote the Buddha Charita?
||To which dynasty did Kanishka belong?
||The Kushana dynasty
||On the banks of which river did Harappa lie?
||Ravi. Mohenjodaro was on the bank of the Sindhu|
||Name the trading station of the Indus Valley Civilisation.
||The 'Sapta Sindhu' was the area of the initial Aryan settlement. To what region did it refer?
||The land of the Sindhu (Indus) and its principal tributaries.
||Which is the crime that is most often mentioned in the|
||What does the word 'Sangam' refer to in Tamil History?
||It is the literary assembly of Tamil scholars held at Madurai under the patronage of the Pandyan Kings.
||Which great Chola Emperor started the tradition of installing epigraphs with historical introductions?
||Nalanda and Vikramshila were very famous in ancient India. What was the reason for their fame?
||These were the centres where the famous Buddhist Universities flourished.
||What were Nalanda, Vikramshila in reality?
||Buddhist monasteries. They later took on the shape of universities.
||What does the term Bhagavata relate to?
||Greek sources refer to him as Sandrocottus (Androcottus). How do we know him?
||What does the term 'dwija' mean?
||'Dwija' describes those who wear the sacred thread after Upanayanam. Literally 'Dwija' means twice-born.
|| What was the reason for the importance of Kaveripattanam during the Sangam period?
||It was among the chief ports of the Tamil countries that carried on trade with the Romans.
||What was the intoxicating drink that was consumed by the Rig Vedic Aryans during religious ceremonies?
||How do we better know "Sakyamuni" (Shakyamuni)?
||Who was the twenty-fourth and the last Tirthankara of the Jains?
||On the basis of the Dhamma that Ashoka propagated, what is "Shusrusha"?
||Shusrusha meant obedience to father, mother, teacher and men of high caste.
||What is the literal meaning of Mohenjodaro?
||Mound of the dead.
||What is a Stupa?
||It is a kind of tomb where the relics of Buddha or other Buddhist monks are kept.
||What were the four sights which Gautam saw, while being driven around the city?
||An old man, a sick man, a corpse and an ascetic.
||Who was the chief deity of the Sangam Period?
||Which Gupta ruler is also known as 'Kavi Raja'?
||Samudragupta is represented on coins as playing a particular musical instrument. Which musical instrument is that?
||What is common to the following: Kumarasambhava, Ritusamhara, Raghuvamsham and Meghdootam?
||They are all works of Kalidasa.
||What was the name of Harsha's sister?
||What was the title assumed by Harsha when he ascended the throne?
||Whom did Harsha succeed?
||His elder brother, Rajyavardhana.
||Mahendra, the son of Ashoka, was sent as a Buddhist missionary to a particular kingdom. Identify the kingdom.
||In ancient times, who were the foreigners who were called Yavanas?
||The Greeks. The word was derived from the Old Persian form of the word 'Yauna', signifying originally the Ionian Greeks, but later, all people of Greek nationality. In the medieval times it came to be used for all foreigners irrespective of their place of origin.
||What was Sumatra called as, in ancient times?
||Who systematised the rules of Sanskrit grammar
(4 Century BC) in the work Ashtadhyayi?
||One of the chief sources of revenue from villages mentioned in the Ashokan inscriptions is the "Bhaga". What is it?
||Bhaga: King's share of the produce of the soil, usually l/6th. The other source of revenue was the Bali. The Bali was the land tribute paid to the King.
||In the Mauryan times if someone were referring to the Karshapana, what would he be talking about?
||The Karshapana was a copper coin that was in use during the Mauryan times. Dharana was a Silver coin and the Kakani were smaller copper coins.
||Where is Gandhara art found?
||The ruins of Taksha-shila, in modern Pakistan and
||What were the Jains originally called?
||In Jainism a small group of people were called Ganadharas. Who were they?
||The close disciples of Mahavira were called Ganadharas.
||For a while, Bhagavatism and Brahmanism were separate sects. How did the two merge into one?
||When Krishna, the main deity of Bhagavatism, began to be identified with Vishnu, the main deity of Brahmanism, the two sects merged into one.
||What is the importance of the Khyber and Bolan passes in Indian history?
||The land route between India and West Asia lies through these passes.
||Which city in ancient India was famous for its textile industry?
||What is Stridhana?
||It is the exclusive property of a married lady, something she often inherits from her mother.
||According to the Arthashastra the Senapati was an important member of the Mantri Parishad. What was his role?
||Commander-in-Chief of the army.
||Jyotisha is one of the Vedangas. What does it deal with?
||Astronomy and astrology
||Two popular assemblies used to control the affairs of the Vedic kingdoms. Name them.
||Sabha: - Body of the elders. Constituted of Brahmins and rich patrons.
Samiti: - An assembly of common people. Meant for the discharge of administration.
||Who or what are the 'Uttariya' and 'Antariya'?
||In ancient India, antariya (dhoti) a lower garment was worn by all common people. Uttariya was the garment that covered the upper part of the body. In addition to these the well-to-do people wore Prapata around the waist. Around the prapata, the rich wore Rasana, usually of gold. Ushneesha was used to cover the head and Stanapatta was worn to cover the breasts.
||Who built the rock-cut temples at Ellora?
||The Rashtrakuta king, Krishna I.
||In the context of Buddhism, what is Vinaya Pitaka?
||It is the work that deals with the governance of the life of Buddhists. It also describes the gradual development of the Sangha and the life and teachings of Buddha.
||What is contained in the Sutta Pitaka?
||Sutta Pitaka incorporates the greatest literary works of Buddhism. Of the five collections, the first four consist of discourses of Buddha.
||Patanjali's Mahabhashya refers to some of the stories about Krishna's early life. Who does Patanjali call Samkarshana?
||With which modern township would you identify the ancient port of Suppara (also known as Surparaka)?
||Nala Sopara an extended suburb of modern Mumbai.
||What was the basis of barter for common articles during the Vedic period?
||In which script were a majority of the Ashoka inscriptions written?
||Brahmi. Brahmi script was used in the whole of the country, except the northwest.
||What script did Ashoka use in the inscriptions of the Northwest of India?
||The Jaina texts were finally compiled in the sixth century A.D. in Vallabhi in Gujarat. In which language were they written?
||Who wrote the Arthashastra?
||Which is a very important source of information for the social, political and economic life of the people living in the Tamil Naidu area in the early Christian era?
||Who is the author of the Greek work "Indika"?
||Megasthenes. This book, however, is not available to us in its entirety and survives only in quotations by subsequent classical writers.
||When did the Vikram Samvat begin in India?
||It began in 57 B.C.
||Over which part of present-day India did the Pala dynasty rule?
||When did the Shaka era begin in India?
||Who started the Shaka era?
||Kanishka of the Kushana dynasty.
||When did the Gupta era begin in India?
||In 320 A.D., after Chandragupta of the Gupta dynasty.
||Over which kingdom did Kharavela rule?
||According to Buddhist sources, a dreaded dacoit had a transformation of heart and took refuge in Buddha's Dhamma. Who was he?
||An accomplished and rich dancer gave away her mango-grove to the Sangha of Buddha and became his disciple. Name her.
||Why was the Indus Valley Civilisation originally called the Harappan Civilisation?
||It was so called because the first site of this civilization was discovered (in 1921) at the modern site of Harappa, in present day Pakistan.
||What was the basis of the town planning of the people of the Indus Valley Civilisation?
||It was the Grid System. In the format that they used all roads cut across each other almost at right angles. This led to the city being divided into blocks.
||What was the most important public place in Mohenjodaro?
||It was the Great Bath. It was probably used for ritual bathing.
||What religion did Kharavela patronise?
||The Greeks called cotton "Sindon". There is a reason behind this name. What is it?
||The people of the Indus Valley Civilisation were the first to produce cotton and therefore the Greeks called it Sindon. This word is derived from the name Sindh.
||Karikala Chola founded a famous city. What was it?
||Puhar. Identified with Kaveripatnam the Chola capital.
||To which Age does the Indus Valley Civilisation belong?
||The Bronze Age. Iron was not known to them.
||What is the birthplace of Shankaracharya?
||Kaladi. Shankaracharya was a famous exponent of the Advaita philosophy. Advaita literally means not two. Advaita believes in an eternal being and holds that the plurality is nothing but illusion.
||How many books or Mandalas does the Rig Veda contain?
||Who introduced chariots drawn by horses into India?
||Who was born to Siddhartha and Trishala in the year 540 B.C.?
||According to the Arthashastra, the Purohita was an important member of the Mantri Parishad. What was his role?
||He was the High Priest.
||In ancient India handicraftsmen were organised into economic corporations or guilds. What were these Guilds called?
||Who wrote Kadambari?
||At what age did Mahavira abandon the world and become an ascetic?
||At the age of 30 yrs.
||Where and when did Mahavira pass away?
||In 468 B.C at Pavapuri, in modern Bihar.
||Jainism was divided into two sects. Name them.
||Shvetambara: - Those clad in white.
Digambara: - Those who are sky-clad (or are naked)
||Where was Buddha born?
||Buddha was born in the royal grove in Lumbini near Kapilavastu.
||Where did Buddha deliver his first sermon?
||What was the path to be followed to be free from misery according to Buddha?
||He recommended following the eight-fold path, (ashtanga magga)
||Under whose rule did Magadha first attain prominence?
||Bimbisara. According to Ashwaghosha, Bimbisara belonged to the Haryanka dynasty.
||Who was the Royal Physician at Bimbisara's court?
||Which was the capital of the kingdom of Magadha before Pataliputra?
||Girivraja. Also called Rajagriha or Rajgir.
||Who succeeded Bimbisara to the throne of Magadha?
||Which dynasty succeeded the dynasty of Bimbisara?
||The Shishunagas. They conquered the kingdom of Avanti, and made it a part of the Magadhan empire.
||Where was Pataliputra situated?
||It was situated at the confluence of the Gandak, the Son, and the Ganga. It is present-day Patna.
||What were the reasons behind the refusal of the Greek soldiers to accompany Alexander beyond the Beas?
||They were war weary and home sick. The hot climate of India did not suit them. Having experienced the fighting abilities of the Indian people they were apprehensive about the power of the Nandas. All these reasons contributed to their refusal.
||What theme does Vishakhadatta's play, Mudrarakshasa, deal with?
||The strategies adopted by Chanakya against the enemies of Chandragupta Maurya.
||Which were the four divisions of the army in ancient India?
||Infantry, cavalry, elephants and chariots.
||Why did Ashoka exempt the village of Lumbini from 'Bali' (tribute paid to the king)?
||Because this was the birthplace of Gautama Buddha.
||Menander, also known as Milinda, was the most famous of the Indo-Greek kings. Where was his capital city?
||Sakala, modern Sialkot.
||Who was the Buddhist monk who converted Menander into Buddhism?
||Nagasena or Nagarjuna.
||What is the Milinda Panha?
||It is a book, which records the conversation between Nagarjuna and Menander. Milinda Panha literally means Questions by Milinda.
||Who issued the first long inscription in chaste
|Rudradaman, the famous Shaka ruler.
||We know of two successive dynasties of the Kushanas. Who founded them?
||The first dynasty was founded by Kadphises I and the second by Kanishka.
||The Shakas and the Kushanas completely identified themselves with Indian culture. What factors helped them in this?
||They did not have a script of their own nor did they have any organised religion.
||What were the articles of clothing introduced in India by the Shakas and the Kushanas?
||Trousers, long coat, tunic and turban. The turban, however, is mentioned as a head dress in ancient India (Ushneesha)
||How were the foreign elements like Shaka, Pahlava and the Kushanas assimilated into Indian society?
||Since they came as conquerors they were classified as Kshatriyas.
||Buddhism was divided into two sects. What were they?
||Mahayana: - The Great wheel. Hinayana: - The Lesser wheel.
||Name the two Buddhist centres located in present day Andhra Pradesh?
||Nagarjunakonda and Amaravati.
||What was the contribution of the Greeks to Indian theatre techniques?
||The use of curtain was borrowed from the Greeks. The curtain was called "Yavanika".
||Over which areas did the Shatavahana dynasty rule?
||The Deccan and Central India.
||Over which area of India did Rashtrakutas rule?
||Who were Gandhikas?
||Artisans who are mentioned as giving donations to the Buddhists. Originally Gandhika meant perfumes but was later used to describe shopkeepers. The name Gandhi is said to have been derived from it.
||What was the Buddhist temple known as?
||What was a Buddhist monastery known as?
||What were the main articles of trade of the Southern Kingdoms of the Cholas, the Cheras and the
||Spices especially pepper, ivory, pearls, muslin and silk.
||Name two of the epics of the Sangam Age.
||Silappadikaram, Jivakachintamani and Manimekalai.
||What was the Uttarapatha?
||It was the route that was used for trade. It ran from Taksha-shila to Broach on the Western coast.
||Which empire rose on the remains of the Kushan Empire?
||The Gupta Empire.
||Who were Lichchhavis? What are they known for?
||Lichchhavis ruled over a vast area from Magadha to Nepal. They were best known for the democracy they practised. It would not be correct to compare it with democracy as understood today. Some preferred to call it oligarchy.
||Who wrote 'Hitopadesha'?
||Narayana Bhatta. Hitopadesha is a collection of stories, most of which were drawn from the Panchatantram of Vishnu Sharma.
||Who is regarded as the first important King of the Gupta dynasty?
||Which Gupta ruler adopted the title 'Vikramaditya'?
||Chandragupta II. He is regarded as the greatest of the Gupta rulers (376 to 414 AD).
||Who was the Chinese pilgrim who visited India during the time of Chandragupta II?
||Who was the first Gupta king to assume the title 'Rajadhiraja"?
||Chandragupta I. In addition to 'Rajadhiraja', Samudragupta assumed the titles 'Parambhattaraka' and 'Paramabhagavata'.
||What was the image on the royal seal of the Guptas?
||Who was the author of the play 'Mrichchhakatikam'?
||Which empire rose on the ruins of the empire of the Pallavas of Kanchi?
||The Chola Empire.
||A ruling dynasty at Thanesar, (in modern Haryana), extended its authority over the feudatories of the Gupta Empire. Who was the ruler who achieved this?
||Which city did Harsha make his capital?
||Who was the Chinese pilgrim who visited India during the time of Harsha?
||Who was the ruler of South India who prevented Harsha from extending his kingdom southwards?
||The Chalukya King Pulakesin II.
||What religion did Harsha follow during his early
|He was a devotee of Shiva.
||Which religious sect did Harsha patronise in his later
||What are the Vedangas?
||The limbs of the Vedas. It was necessary to learn the Vedanga to understand the Vedas. The Vedangas were :
a) Shiksha (phonetics)
b) Kalpa (rituals)
d) Nirukta (etymology)
e) Chhanda (metrics)
f) Jyotisha (astronomy)
||Who was reputed to be the author of the following books: Priyadarshika, Ratnavali and Nagananda?
||In which book would you find the famous Gayatri
||In the Rigveda, a daughter is sometimes referred to as 'duhitr'. What is the literal translation of the word?
||One who milks the cow.
||Who was the first person to hold that the earth was a sphere and rotated on its axis?
||Aryabhata. He also declared that the eclipses were not the work of Rahu but were caused by the shadow of the earth falling on the moon. Varahamihira and Brahmagupta later astronomers did not agree with his view. Aryabhata also gave an accurate approximation
||What is the 'Dharmachakrapravartana'?
||The preaching of the first sermon by Buddha.
||Who was responsible for establishing the order of nuns in Buddhism?
||Ananda, the personal attendant of Buddha, was largely responsible for the admission of Gautami (the widowed stepmother of Buddha) into the Sangha. This was the beginning of the order of nuns.
||Who deciphered the Asokan inscriptions?
||The word 'Aryan' originates from the Sanskrit word 'Arya'. What was the meaning of the word?
||Of good family.